There has been some talk on this list about the introduction of disease and
parasites into the wild via the release of aquarium fishes. Here is some
information that Lisa Hayashi recently sent me regarding such and introduced
parasite in Hawaii and elsewhere. I thought that some of you might find it
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The North American Native Fishes Association: over
25 years of conservation efforts, public education, and
aquarium study of our native fishes.
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Wednesday, July 10, 2002 11:41 PM
Subject: introduced Camallanus spp. references
"Distribution of M[yzobdella] lugubris ...Font and Tate (1994) assessed the
distribution of the organisms on the Big Island. They studied the Hakalau
stream (15 miles north of Hilo on Hawai'i) where 4 native goby species (A.
guamensis, L. concolor, Sicyopterus stimpsoni, and Stenogobius hawaiiensis)
and 1 native sleeper fish (Eleotris sandwicensis) were collected... It was
found that M. lugubris was the second most abundant parasite in Hakalau
attacking all species except L. concolor, the most abundant parasite was
nematode, Camallanus cotti."
Font William F. and Tate, David C. "Helminth Parasites of Native Hawaiian
Freshwater Fishes: An Example of Extreme Ecological Isolation". Journal of
Parasitology. 1994. 80 (5). pg 682-688.
"Parasites (Font, 1997)... Camallanus cotti Fujita is an oriental nematode
that has been spread by humans with the introduction of mosquitofish,
guppies, swordtails and shortfin mollies into Hawai'ian streams. Some of
these introductions have been for the Aquarium trade while others were for
mosquito control. C. cotti is pathogenic and infects 4 of the native
Font, W.F. 1997. Distribution of Helminth Parasites of Native and Introduced
Stream Fishes in Hawaii. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers. 49:56-62
tipes_concolor.html">Click here: Student project report - Ichthyology -
"Based on Hoffman (1970) and Hoffman and Schubert (1984), the introduced
nonindigenous pathogen species in the United States are protozoans (12),
trematodes: monogenea (24), trematodes: digenea (2), cestodes (1), nematodes
(2), copepodes (2), acanthocephalians (1), and isopodes (2). Many have
become parasites of indigenous fishes and are now in fishes in Florida. The
following information about the nonindigenous pathogens in the United States
was taken from Hoffman (1970) and Hoffman and Schubert (1984). Species that
are marked with an asterisk are believed to have been introduced into
because the pathogen is host specific to introduced nonindigenous fishes in
Florida or the biology of the species is similar to that of already
established other species or was recently imported... *Camallanus cotti.
This species, originally described from fishes in Japan (Fujita 1927),
established in ornamental fish culture and turned up in Malaysia, Europe,
United States, and Australia (Stumpp 1975)."
Fujita, T. 1927. On new species of nematodes from fishes of Lake Biwa. Japan
Journal of Zoology 1:169-176.
Hoffman, G. L. 1970. Intercontinental and transcontinental dissemination and
transfaunation of fish parasites with emphasis on whirling disease (Myxosoma
cerebralis). Pages 69-81 in S. F. Snieszko, editor. A Symposium on Diseases
of Fish and Shellfish, American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Md. 526 pp.
Hoffman, G. L., and G. Schubert. 1984. Some parasites of exotic fishes.
233-254 in W. R. Courtenay, Jr. and J. R. Stauffer Jr., editors.
Distribution, biology, and management of exotic fishes. John Hopkins
University Press, Baltimore, Md.
Stumpp, M. 1975. Untersuchëngen zur Morphologie and Biologie von Camallanus
cotti (Fujita, 1927). Zeitschrift Parasitenkunde 46:277-290.
<A HREF="http://aquat1.ifas.ufl.edu/mcdis2.html">Click here: McCann Book
Chapter 2 Section 2</A>
Font, W.F. 1997. Improbable colonists: helminth parasites of freshwater
fishes on an oceanic island. Micronesica 30 (1): 105-115.
Font, W.F. 1998. Parasites in paradise: patterns of helminth distribution
among streams and fish hosts in Hawai’i. Journal of Helminthology 72:
Rigby, M.C. and W.F. Font. 1998. Redescription of Camallanus cotti Fujita,
1927 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) from Hawai’i. Journal of Parasitology 83:
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