RE: NANFA-- Sacrificing or immobilizing fish

Hoover, Jan J ERDC-EL-MS (
Mon, 29 Jul 2002 12:32:45 -0500

Bruce wrote:
>>>Clove oil is something that can also work in small amounts. In an
you could blow lots of air through a straw into a small amount of water and
the elevated CO2 levels can knock out a fish temporarily. But MS-222 is
probably the best thing for most fish, most of the time.<<<

Jan writes:
MS-222 is a controled substance with numerous guidlines for use. Clove oil
is more innocuous and is being used or considered for use with pallid
sturgeon. Here are some links and references compiled by Bernie Kuhajda.

Anderson, W.G., R.S. McKinley and M. Colavecchia. 1997. The use of clove oil
as an anesthetic for rainbow trout and its effects on swimming performance.
N. Am. J. Fish. Mgmt. 17(2): 301-307.

The only anaesthetic registered in North America for use in fisheries
science is 3-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine or
MS-222). Although MS-222 is a very effective anaesthesia for several fish
species, its application in the field is limited because U.S. Food and Drug
Administration guidelines demand a 21d withdrawal period after exposure to
MS-222 before fish can be released and enter the food chain. As a
consequence, carbon dioxide (CO2) has been used as a substitute anaesthetic;
however, induction and recovery times with CO2 are long, and anaesthesia is
shallow in comparison with MS-222. We compared the efficacy of MS-222 to
that of clove oil, a naturally occurring substance, for use as an
anaesthetic for juvenile and adult rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Clove
oil was as effective as MS-222 in inducing anaesthesia in both age groups.
Furthermore, exposure to either clove oil or MS-222 at the concentrations
tested was not detrimental to critical swimming speed of juvenile or adult
rainbow trout. We propose that clove oil be considered as an alternative to
MS-222 for use as a fish anaesthetic.


Spicing-up fish anaesthesiology
Clove oil found to be effective fish anaesthetic, by Jenny Tye and Greg

Clove Oil, Minyak Cengkeh, A Natural Fish Anesthetic
Clyde S. Tamaru, Ph.D., UH Sea Grant Extension Service/Department of Land
and Natural Resources
Christine Carlstrom-Trick, Hawaii C's Aquaculture Consultant Services
William J. FitzGerald, Jr., Oceania-Pacific Rim Consultant Services

Clove oil as anesthetic for ornamentals
Clyde S. Tamaru, Sea Grant Extension Service/Aquaculture Development Program
Matt Lyum, Sea Grant Extension Service

Clove oil: an 'eco-friendly' alternative to cyanide use in the live reef
fish industry?
by Mark V. Erdmann
University of California, Berkeley and Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Further readings on clove oil:

Anderson, W.G., R.S. McKinley & M. Colavecchia. (1997). The use of clove oil
as an anesthetic for rainbow trout and its effects on swimming performance.
North American Journal of Fisheries Management. 17: 301-307.
Maura A., A. Pino & R. Ricci. (1989). Negative evidence in-vivo of
DNA-damaging, mutagenic and chromosomal effects of eugenol. Mutation
Research. 227: 125-129.

Recent Advances in Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia: Companion Animals,
R. D. Gleed and J. W. Ludders (Eds.) Publisher: International Veterinary
Information Service (, Ithaca, New York, USA.
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