The threat posed by black carp to aquatic ecosystems is recognized by
research and management agencies at local, regional, and national levels.
Risk Assessment and Management Committee of the Aquatic Nuisance Species
Task Force - which concluded that black carp were a threat to native fresh
water mussels and advised against the release of reproductive individuals
(paper presented at Society for Risk Analysis, 1999).
Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association (MICRA) - a group of
conservation and natural resource agencies from 28 states, which unanimously
agreed to oppose release of black carp anywhere in the Mississippi basin.
Opposition was to reproductive (diploid) and non-reproductive (triploid)
forms. MICRA wrote letters to Mississippi and Arkansas governors urging
that they rescind decisions to allow release and interstate sales of black
carp (respectively) (21 Dec 1999). MICRA later petitioned USFWS to list
black carp as an "injurious species" (Feb 2000).
Arkansas Chapter of the American Fisheries Society - which passed a
resolution urging the USFWS to list the black carp as an "injurious species"
and to resume a certification program for release of triploid fish, and for
the USFWS and Arkansas Game and Fish Commission to develop alternatives for
snail and parasite control (07 Dec 2001).
United States Fish and Wildlife Service - which proposed amending Part 16 of
Title 50 Code of Federal Regulations to include listing black carp as
"injurious species." This would prohibit importation of live black carp or
viable eggs (except for research and educational purposes) (18 July 2002,
Federal Register, Vol. 67, No. 146, pp. 49280-49284).
Missouri Chapter of the American Fisheries Society - which supported the
listing of black carp as an "injurious species," advised against the use of
triploid fish, and urged that existing stocks of diploid and triploid fish
be destroyed (18 Sep 2002).
Arkansas Game and Fish Commission - which declared diploid black carp a
restricted species, limiting possession to permitted facilities which have
minimized likelihood of escape. Triploid black carp, however, were approved
for import and trade within the state, but for aquaculture purposes
(Fisheries Division Policy, 01 Oct 2002). Also, Arkansas fishing regulation
32.12 prohibits release of non-native species (including black carp) and
32.15 prohibits use or sale of black carp as baitfish.
Indiana Natural Resources Commission - which modified state codes regarding
exotic species to include black carp making it illegal to import, possess,
or release into public and private waters (Nov 2002).
Alabama Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries - which included
black carp on a list of animals (including walking catfish and piranha) that
no person, firm, corporation, partnership, or association shall possess,
sell, offer for sale, import, bring or cause to be brought or imported into
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - which treats all invasive species
(including black carp) in accordance with Executive Order 13112 using
relevant programs and authorities to prevent introduction, detect and
respond rapidly to control populations, monitor established populations,
conduct research and promote public education, restore native species and
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